We spoke earlier about Hazards, now we will cover the similar topic but add more details in regards to that.

Caution – danger Beware of slippery. Safety sign. Warning triangle and crossing warning bands. Industrial design. Vector illustration.


Step three is to decide exactly what you will do to drive smoothly and deal with the hazard. This means planning your actions in detail and checking to see that the way is clear to proceed.

Real hazards

You may decide to simply brake gently or change lanes to avoid the hazard, or you may want to brake hard, release the brakes and steer.

Potential hazards

When you encounter a potential hazard, you may decide to take no action and continue to monitor the actions of other drivers, or you may decide to take action to avoid the other vehicles.

Consider the following steps before you take any action:

  • Check that your chosen gate is still open.
  • Check the surface condition of the roadway for braking.
  • Check the shoulder and the ditch.
  • Continue to watch the vehicle and decide whether you will take action to avoid it.


  • The final step, to execute, means to carry out your decision.
  • Executing some of your decisions will simply mean making a smooth stop at a traffic light.
  • Executing other decisions may involve using techniques for emergency driving.
  • To be good at executing your decisions, particularly emergency decisions, you need to practice in a safe situation, preferably with a trained instructor. Practice helps you overcome the panic that usually arises the first time you are in an emergency.

When you begin practising the IPDE method you will be slow and will probably think in words. As you practise, you will become faster and begin to think in ideas and pictures. At this stage, you will be able to carry out the entire procedure rapidly. You can cut your reaction time by taking the time to practise the IPDE method. It may save your life.

Once you have been using IPDE for some time, much of your identifying, predicting, deciding and executing will be carried out instinctively.

You will need to use IPDE more often in heavier traffic and when you are driving at higher speeds.

You will find that your physical condition greatly affects your ability to handle IPDE. If you are tired or are ill, you should reduce the IPDE load by travelling at reduced speeds. You can reduce the IPDE load by avoiding heavy traffic. You might also consider not driving.

Alcohol and other drugs make it very difficult to carry out the IPDE process. Since IPDE is designed to prevent you from having collisions, it is not surprising that a large number of crashes are alcohol- and drug-related.

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